In 1959, American theoretical physicist Richard Feynman was the first who identified the potentiality of nanotechnology. Now it is a part of the new 4th industrial revolution. Nanotechnology is a field of research and innovation that deals with building materials from 1 to 100 nm in length on the scale of atoms and molecules. Nanotechnology is an easier solution for much bigger problems in comparison. Day by day the application of nanotechnology is rapidly increasing in every sector of development. Nanotechnology can fight cancer cells. It makes microprocessors faster and consumes less energy. Nanotechnology has a variety of applications including food processing, solar fuels, better air quality, better water quality, chemical sensors, space etc. The advancement of nanotechnology has created enormous opportunities and challenges for every sector, including the textile and cotton industry. Nowadays, the textile industries are also using nanotechnology after discovering the potentialities of it. So it won’t be excessive to define nanotechnology as a hope of 4th industrial revolution for the textile industry.
Application of Nanotechnology in textile:
Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanotechnology to be integrated into textile substrates. The impact of nano-materials in textiles dramatically improved the fabric and processing technology to fulfill the application of society. It has huge potentialities for the textile industry because the conventional methods of fabric manufacturing will lose their function after laundering or wearing and won’t lead to any permanent effect. But nanoparticles have the ability to enhance the durability of the fabric and presenting better affinity due to its large surface area to volume ratio and high surface energy. There are some interesting applications of nanotechnology in the textile industry that offer the possibility of reducing the use of harsh chemicals such as anti-microbial application, ascertaining improved long-term performance and durability, and generating products that are more eco-friendly. Some of the other applications of nanotechnology are:
- Water repellent.
- Fire retardant.
- Color fastness.
- UV absorption.
- Energy storage.
- Color changing.
- Self Cleaning.
Advantages of Nanotechnology in the textile industry :
There is no doubt that in the next few years, nanotechnology will be used in every field of textile industry due to its enormous benefits. The increased demand for Textile and fabrics that provide comfort with enhanced functionality is driving the demand for nanotechnology in this sector. There are several advantages of using nanotechnology in the textile industry. Nanotechnology will build the door of new industrial revolution in textile industry. Nanotechnology can be used to reduce the high risk of skin cancer by using UV protection in clothing. The uses of anti-bacterial nanoparticles in textile is a weapon for the fight against the spreading of antibiotics resistant germs. The nanocarbon can be studded in antistatic clothing and packaging fabric as in protective suits for blast protection. It can be used to change the color of clothing. These are some of the benefits of using nano particles in textile industries.
Some disadvantages of Nanotechnology in textile :
Nanotechnology has the potential to provide a good life and to contribute to industrial competitiveness all over the world. However, this new technology may also raise health, environment and safety concerns. There are a number of health effects of nanotechnology including pulmonary inflammation, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and circulatory effects. Also, there is a huge knowledge gap between technological improvement in nanotechnology and nanosafety.
Scope for Bangladesh:
Bangladesh has a good history of producing quality textile. So if Bangladesh abstains from the conventional methods of textile manufacturing and starts to produce fabric by using nanotechnology, it will create the new industrial revolution door for Bangladesh, will reduce the competitiveness of products, and enhance the quality and durability of products. There are a number of Bangladeshi researchers who are working on nanotechnology abroad. Some of them are willing to come back to Bangladesh to help the country. It would be beneficial for the industry if the government and private sectors take the initiative to invest in nanotechnology for production in a different way.